The peel, white pulp membrane, arils and seeds of the pomegranate all contain many chemical compounds of high biological value. The most important product derived from the pomegranate is its juice, which is unquestionably the most research element, with many articles published in both the Spanish and international scientific literature.
About 50% of the total weight of the pomegranate corresponds to the peel and white pulp membranes, which are a major source of bio-active compounds such as polyphenols, flavonoids, ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins and minerals, mainly potassium, nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and sodium. Consequently, if processed correctly, nutraceutical products and food condiments made from peel and membrane extracts may provide an important source of these compounds.
The edible part of the pomegranate represents about 50% of the total weight of the fruit, of which the fleshy pulp of the arils accounts for 80% and the woody seeds contain 20%.
Pomegranate arils are composed of 85% water, 10% sugar (mainly fructose and glucose), 1.5% organic acids (principally ascorbic, citric and malic acids) and bioactive compounds such as polyphenols and flavonoids (mainly anthocyanins).
Pomegranate arils are also a major source of lipids, since fatty acids comprise between 12% and 20% of the total dry weight of the seeds.
The fatty acid profile is characterised by a high content in unsaturated fatty acids, including linolenic, linoleic, punicic, oleic, stearic and palmitic acids.